Opportunities

internship in plant ecology

Research Internships in Plant Ecology, Archbold Biological Station, Florida

Beginning September 2020; running about 8 months.

Applications due June 30, 2020.

Ideal for Students with Undergraduate Degrees Contemplating Graduate School

Includes independent research project. Provides Stipend, Room and Board.

Internships available at Archbold Biological Station in south-central Florida in the Plant Ecology Program, led by Dr. Eric Menges, which emphasizes conservation biology, plant demography, restoration ecology, fire ecology, landscape ecology, and fire management. We study many rare species of endemic vascular plants in endangered Florida scrub and related communities. Active fire management provides outstanding opportunities for short-term comparative studies in fire ecology. Our long-term (as long as 31-year) datasets on dozens of scrub plants gives context to short-term, focused, field projects. Additional information can be found at the Archbold website:  https://na01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.archbold-station.org%2F&data=02%7C01%7Cmadeline.hennessey%40uconn.edu%7Cad62ae70ca7e4dee45dc08d80f7af33b%7C17f1a87e2a254eaab9df9d439034b080%7C0%7C0%7C637276368051970966&sdata=hkDp8hMpqcQ8l0TIqFqsTKsrP6PjgEtP1mj9z7Q%2B3Z4%3D&reserved=0 or the plant ecology program website: https://na01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.archbold-station.org%2Fhtml%2Fresearch%2Fplant%2Fplant.html&data=02%7C01%7Cmadeline.hennessey%40uconn.edu%7Cad62ae70ca7e4dee45dc08d80f7af33b%7C17f1a87e2a254eaab9df9d439034b080%7C0%7C0%7C637276368051970966&sdata=3P6FnyEAGduJK5szki4bZhkssA2KHF2uz%2F9HV1U9%2Bbg%3D&reserved=0 or our intern website: https://na01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.archbold-station.org%2Fhtml%2Fresearch%2Fplant%2Fplantinternship.html&data=02%7C01%7Cmadeline.hennessey%40uconn.edu%7Cad62ae70ca7e4dee45dc08d80f7af33b%7C17f1a87e2a254eaab9df9d439034b080%7C0%7C0%7C637276368051970966&sdata=iT4bZmEg9UrGzgKZdoPpRaQQrgnTf4eKDUJRWp3vL2c%3D&reserved=0

Interns receive a weekly stipend of $160 plus meals (breakfast and lunch Mon-Fri) and lodging at the Station (sharing housing, no pets).    Each intern works 20 hours per week assisting with a wide range of ongoing research projects. The remainder of the week can be devoted to an independent research project. Internships run for about 8 months (can sometimes be shorter or longer) and offer an opportunity for experience in every aspect of scientific research, from project choice and experimental design to oral and written presentations. Our internships are ideal preparation for graduate research in ecology. Most of our interns have gone on to academic or professional positions and many have first-authored publications based on their intern projects.

Archbold Biological Station is active in research, conservation, and education. Our facilities include a 5000 ha preserve, an outstanding regional library and a GIS lab running ArcINFO. We have a staff of about 50 with many visiting scientists, an active seminar program, and a relaxed biological station atmosphere.

Ideal candidates will have independent research experience, classwork and experience in ecology and botany, field ecology experience, strong grades, statistical and GIS skills, and excellent letters of recommendation.

To apply for an internship in the plant ecology lab, please provide the following: a cover letter stating research interests, a resume or CV, and a summary of grades. Arrange for two letters of recommendation to be sent to us via email. Materials should be sent by November 1, 2019.

EMAIL APPLICATIONS ONLY! Send to Eric Menges at emenges@archbold-station.org

Archbold is an equal opportunity employer and encourages applications

from members of underrepresented groups

JOB: Landscape Scale Planner with New Mexico State Land Office

The New Mexico State Land Office (NMSLO) is hiring its first-ever Landscape Scale Planner.  We would be grateful for your help in circulating this job announcement so that we can attract a talented and well-qualified pool of candidates.

This job exists to develop, employ, and institutionalize landscape scale planning at the New Mexico State Land Office to secure better long term conservation outcomes for state trust land while optimizing the location and generation of revenue generating activities. Historically, NMSLO’s land decisions have been predominantly made on a project by project basis. While NMSLO is involved in several collaborative planning projects across the state, we recognize the need to shift toward even broader based resource planning that allows for more comprehensive public input and, consequently, proactive planning and land use.

To apply for this job please proceed to: https://na01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.spo.state.nm.us%2F&data=02%7C01%7Cmadeline.hennessey%40uconn.edu%7C147d1971205b4128432208d80d1fbbed%7C17f1a87e2a254eaab9df9d439034b080%7C0%7C0%7C637273777236757922&sdata=BTTLyeNcto9t07y7%2B1Tw8k95rl5ditWZr3hAW%2BPsvfA%3D&reserved=0

1.            Click on Ãf¢ÒÂEURÃ’ÂoeView Job Opportunities & ApplyÃf¢ÒÂEURҝ

2.            Search for keyword:  #10111871

This posting closes on June 11th.

More information

The Planner will research and choose landscape-scale planning models best suited for NMSLO and state trust land, recognizing that these lands are widely distributed across New Mexico with varied levels of contiguity and intermixed jurisdictions. These planning models will need to address state trust landÃf¢ÒÂEURÃ’Â(tm)s diverse natural and cultural resources, uses, and levels of economic activity. The Planner will also need to develop a rationale for choosing planning areas for initiating this program. The Planner will use NMSLO’s Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and work with NMSLO staff to inventory resources present, revenue-generating opportunities, and conservation opportunities on state trust land. This includes augmenting our GIS with additional data, as needed, to apply the selected planning model(s). The Planner will use these data and analyses to inform decision-making and engage stakeholders in the planning process. These stakeholders include tribes and pueblos, state and federal agencies, local communities and governments, current state trust land lessees, conservation and recreation interests, soil and water conservation districts, and industry partners. The Planner will produce area land use plans with strategies for conserving trust resources and identifying preferred locations for revenue-generating activities. The Planner will explore options for institutionalizing landscape-scale planning at NMSLO.

The ideal candidate will have:

-A Bachelor or graduate degree in land-use planning or a closely related discipline.

-Demonstrated history of leading or participating in complex land planning efforts that address both economic and conservation outcomes.

-Ability to engage and gather priorities from assorted stakeholders.

-Demonstrated knowledge of innovative land planning tools and techniques.

-Skilled in data management and analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software.

You can read more about this position and apply for this job by going to the website referenced above.

UAS Blackbird Technician – North Dakota

*Agency: *North Dakota State University (NDSU) in cooperation with USDA-APHIS-WS National Wildlife Research Center.

*Location: *Central North Dakota

*Salary: *$12/hr with housing provided near Bismarck, ND.

*Start Date: *08/28/2019

*Last Date to Apply: *July 1. Applications will be reviewed as they are received.

*Description: *

Two technicians are needed from 28 August âÂEUR” 31 October, 2020 to assist a NDSU graduate student on a blackbird (Icteridae) research project. The research will evaluate the response of free-ranging flocks of blackbirds to a spraying UAS (i.e., drone) applying avian repellent to commercial sunflower fields. This project is part of on-going research to evaluate novel non-lethal hazing techniques to mitigate the conflict between blackbirds and sunflower producers.

This position is ideal for a recent graduate that wants to gain field experience and has previous experience, or strong interest, in operating drone platforms. The technician will be a full-time employee through NDSU, allowing for a 40 hour work week schedule. A typical week will be HIGHLY dependent on weather, and work day flexibility is a necessity (i.e., field work may not be M-F during set times, but will instead be weather permitting). However, there will be down time in the mornings or afternoon/evenings and days off provided. Field sites are commercial (privately owned) sunflower fields throughout central North Dakota, and thus requires long days spent in a truck driving to sites. The technicians will share a travel trailer for housing.

*Duties: *

The technicians are needed to operate a small UAS and collect field data, while the graduate student is conducting spraying trials with a larger UAS.

The technicians will also help manage videos and data collection concerning collective animal behavior in response to drones. Duties will include, assisting the graduate student with UAS set up, operating a small UAS, acting as a field observer, monitoring blackbird flocks and their behavior, estimating flock sizes, and using field equipment such as: binoculars, range finders, weather meter, sound meter, and other technology related to the UAS. Trials will most likely take place in the morning, requiring an early start to the day.

*Training will be provided so that the technicians receive their FAA Part

107 pilotâÂEURÂ(tm)s license in order to fly a small UAS prior to the field season.*

*Desired Qualifications: *

Ò·         Degree in Wildlife Biology, Natural Resources, Environmental

Science, Zoology, Biology or other associated degrees.

Ò·         Previous experience conducting avian field research.

Ò·         Motivated, willing, positive, and dependable attitude.

Ò·         Excellent communication skills.

Ò·         Ability to work well on a small team, with constant car travel,

in small shared housing.

Ò·         Ability to work long/irregular hours.

Ò·         *Strong preference* for applicants that have previous experience

with operating a small UAS.

*How to Apply: *Send a single document (Word or PDF) that includes your cover letter, resume/cv, and contact information for 3 references to Mallory White at mallory.g.white@ndsu.edu.

Botany Technician position with USGS (GG-0404-05)

Botany Technician, U.S. Geological Survey (GG-0404-05)

Description:

This is a pre-announcement for a temporary 9-month Botany Technician position.

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is recruiting a Botany Technician to assist with ecological restoration research on decommissioned OHV trails in the Mojave and Colorado Deserts of southern California. Research will take place within the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) area, which encompasses approximately 22.5 million acres. The DRECP aims to integrate renewable energy planning with natural resource conservation and recreation to effectively allocate and manage land uses. The USGS will: 1) develop and test restoration protocols and techniques, and 2) gather and analyze ecological monitoring data to determine restoration success. The goal of this effort is to provide the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) with a standardized comprehensive guide for future restoration and monitoring of decommissioned OHV trails and roads. The technician will assist the principle investigators in these efforts, both in the office and in the field. Work will primarily be based out of the USGS office in Henderson, NV, with travel to study sites in California required (average 10 travel days per month).

Schedules are highly variable, can change with little notice, and will sometimes require early morning (3 AM) start times, long days, and a few weekends of work. Overnight, primitive car camping in desert conditions (hot/cold weather extremes) is required. Physical work will entail walking and hiking in desert terrain with up to 40-lb packs, in hot or potentially inclement weather.

This temporary position will begin in the beginning of August 2020 and will continue for up to 9 months (180 working days). Extensions are possible, contingent upon performance and funding availability. Temporary employees are covered by the Social Security Retirement system; annual and sick leave will be accrued; employees are ineligible for life insurance coverage.

There is no promotion potential for this position. The full performance level of this position will be set at the grade level at which you are selected.

Relocation expenses will not be covered for the duration of this appointment.

Responsibilities:

Duties will include, but are not limited to:

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Identify desert flora in field or in office using dichotomous keys.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Gather and maintain ecological metadata from the field, develop databases, perform QA/QC, analyze and archive data.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Work with principle investigators to develop study design, select study sites, implement protocols, and train BLM crews.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Implement monitoring protocols to assess the effectiveness of restoration, including metrics to determine when routes are Ãf¢ÒÂEURÃ’ÂoerestoredÃf¢ÒÂEURҝ.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Perform lab analyses including, but not limited to, soil bulk density and soil texture analysis.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Synthesize and communicate results with the BLM and other cooperators.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Participate in workshops with BLM personnel to ensure products will comply with project goals.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Assist with the day-to-day operations of field research (e.g. preparing supplies, vehicle and equipment maintenance).

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Participate in other research projects as assigned.

Qualifications:

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Knowledge of or ability to quickly learn local desert flora required.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Experience collecting and analyzing transect data on vegetation, soils, and wildlife.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Background and strong interest in botany, desert ecology, plant ecology, and restoration.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Experience in statistical analysis (knowledge of R statistical programming preferred).

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Experience using ArcMap and Microsoft Office applications (Filemaker experience preferred, but not required).

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Experience analyzing remotely sensed data for ecological characteristics.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Ability to communicate effectively with crew members, BLM managers, and other agency personnel.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Demonstrated skills in data collection, synthesis, presentation, and technical writing.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Strong organizational skills.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Ability to work independently and with large groups.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Ability to hike and work in desert conditions with up to 40-lb backpack.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Ability to maintain a positive attitude and strong work ethic under the trying conditions of desert restoration.

Ãf¢ÒÂEURÒ¢    Ability to adapt to a variable and unpredictable schedule.

To qualify for a GG-5 you need 9 months of field experience OR 3 years of sub-professional work experience OR 3 years of college with courses related to the work of the position to be filled (equivalent to 90 semester/135 quarter hours) plus 3 months of lab or field work experience. Sub-professional experience consists of working as a technician or aid in the field or in a laboratory or similar environment. A valid U.S. driverÃf¢ÒÂEURÃ’Â(tm)s license, safe driving record, pre-employment physical, and background security investigation are required. All applicants must be U.S. citizens.

Salary: $16.98 hourly, plus paid vacation and sick days.

Application instructions:

For each position on your resume, please be sure to include the number of hours worked per week, as well as exact start and end dates (month/day/year).

Please submit a resume/CV and the contact information for at least three references via e-mail to Ka-Voka Jackson (skjackson@usgs.gov) by 8:00 AM PDT on Monday, June 22nd, 2020. Applications will be reviewed on a rolling basis.

If claiming 5 point veterans preference, a DD-214 showing character of discharge is required.  If claiming 10 point veterans preference, a SF-15 with proof of claim is required.

NPS Coastal Ecology Intern Job

Application Deadline: 15 June 2020

Position Description: The Coastal Monitoring Intern will assist with Southeast Coast Inventory & Monitoring (SECN) Coastal Program projects, which includes long-term shoreline and salt marsh monitoring.  The position is located at Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve (TIMU) in Jacksonville, Fl.  The overall objective of this position is to assist in the salt marsh and shoreline monitoring projects that provides long-term data for the parks in making management decisions.  The primary responsibilities of the internship are to assist the SECN Coastal Ecologist in conducting the salt marsh and shoreline monitoring field work, following specific methods and protocols.  The intern will assist the coastal ecologist with material preparation, equipment maintenance, sampling elevation, accretion, collecting GPS surveys, and data collection, processing, and entry.  This data will be used to create reports for the parks and is part of a long-term ecological monitoring effort by NPS to provide data to the parks on the status of biodiversity, ecosystem health, and ecosystem change with significant natural resources.

The Coastal Monitoring Intern will complete the data workflow process for our salt marsh data.  This will include entering and checking the salt marsh data in the data base.  Additionally, the intern will be responsible for ensuring that SECN and our partnerÃf¢ÒÂEURÃ’Â(tm)s field data forms are scanned, named appropriately, and organized.  The intern will have the opportunity to assist in data collection efforts at SECN Coastal Parks, and create maps using GPS and GIS data.  If time allows, the intern will also have the opportunity to create story maps for the long-term shoreline and salt marsh monitoring projects. The intern will receive safety training, mentorship, and have the opportunity to attend training.

The position starts 04 January 2021 and is for 20 weeks.  Park housing is available at Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, which includes a private bedroom and shared bathroom, living, and kitchen areas.  A driver’s license and personal vehicle are required for the internship.

Questions about the position can be directed to Lisa Cowart Baron (SECN Coastal Ecologist) at lisa_baron@nps.gov

Technician position

We are looking to hire a technician to work on a collaborative project studying the evolution of the seasonal germination niche in a group of native wildflowers (Streptanthus) with Jenny Gremer, Annie Schmitt, Sharon Strauss, and Julin Maloof.   This is an ideal position for a recent graduate looking for research experience before graduate school.

Responsibilities include carrying out experiments in the field, lab, and controlled environment chambers, collecting field data and plant tissues, propagating plants and maintaining experimental populations.  Field work will include plant surveys and collections of plant specimens and seeds.  The technician will also oversee student assistants, manage databases, and perform basic statistical analyses, as well as coordinate supplies, equipment, and safety protocols.

Requirements:  College-level course-work or equivalent experience/training in plant-related biological sciences or field biology. The applicant must possess excellent written and oral communication and strong organizational skills.  Must be able to organize and coordinate lab, greenhouse, controlled chamber, and field research.  Experience accurately recording, organizing, coordinating and curating data for analysis and reporting required, as well as skills to problem solve and trouble shoot, and ability to work independently and as a member of a research team.  Research experience with plants, especially germination experiments, phenology, and field surveys preferred, as is experience using R software for data management and statistical analyses, experience working with herbarium specimens, and molecular biology lab experience working with DNA and/or RNAseq.

This is a full-time position.  Starting date can be immediately or as soon as possible, with a proposed duration of one year with possibility of extension.

Application:  Please go to the following link to access the UC Davis Human Resources application system and apply by June 6, 2020:

https://na01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fcareerspub.universityofcalifornia.edu%2Fpsp%2Fucdavis%2FEMPLOYEE%2FHRMS%2Fc%2FHRS_HRAM.HRS_APP_SCHJOB.GBL%3FPage%3DHRS_APP_JBPST%26JobOpeningId%3D7869%26PostingSeq%3D1%26SiteId%3D7%26languageCd%3DENG%26FOCUS%3DApplicant&data=02%7C01%7Cmadeline.hennessey%40uconn.edu%7C6bd8f0a2b6ef411d151008d8047a9212%7C17f1a87e2a254eaab9df9d439034b080%7C0%7C0%7C637264271800789124&sdata=YWOsV4gOeeZ5wK7uP%2FNaiQ3u7Ea5xKM6jNl7tE%2BTPz4%3D&reserved=0

ESA Science Communications Intern

ESA seeks an energetic candidate with strong communication and organizational skills to 1) help complete a communications plan for the ESA Vegetation Classification Panel, and 2) to enhance communication and outreach implementation for the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). Communications training is required and a basic background in and appreciation for ecology, biology, and/or environmental sciences is desired.

The science communications intern will work with the Associate Director of Science Programs, Science Programs Specialist, and USNVC Implementation Manager to finalize a communications plan and develop appropriate messaging for key USNVC audiences. Additional duties may include taking notes, facilitating conference calls, and website updates.

This is a paid, part-time remote internship. For more information, please see:

https://na01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.esa.org%2Fcareer-development%2Fopportunities-at-esa%2F&data=02%7C01%7Cmadeline.hennessey%40uconn.edu%7C6bd8f0a2b6ef411d151008d8047a9212%7C17f1a87e2a254eaab9df9d439034b080%7C0%7C0%7C637264271800769127&sdata=ujmVJcAU%2Fc2woxHT6As6BpZ6AXHo4Ts98uhQzpv806Q%3D&reserved=0

ESA Science Programs Specialist

Title: Program Specialist

Department: Office of Science Programs

Supervisor: Associate Director of Science Programs

Classification: Full time, Temporary, Non-exempt

About ESA

The Ecological Society of America, founded in 1915, is the worldÃf¢ÒÂEURÃ’Â(tm)s largest community of professional ecologists and a trusted source of ecological knowledge, committed to advancing the understanding of life on Earth. The Society publishes five journals and a membership bulletin and broadly shares ecological information through policy, media outreach, and education initiatives.

About ESAÃf¢ÒÂEURÃ’Â(tm)s Office of Science Programs

We connect the research and management communities, support the use of science to inform decision making and build capacity among scientists by:

Training: We offer workshops and courses to help scientists gain the skills they need to navigate changes in funding, policy, and technology.

Facilitating engagement: We connect ESA members with agencies that require ecological knowledge and expertise.

Synthesizing information: We help make ecology more accessible to managers and the public.

Facilitating peer review: We help agencies conduct peer reviews of scientific studies and programs that agencies use to support decision making.

Position Overview

ESA seeks an energetic candidate with strong organizational and communication skills to provide administrative and logistical support for a variety of programs in the Office of Science Programs (e.g. ESAÃf¢ÒÂEURÃ’Â(tm)s Sustaining Biological Infrastructure Training Initiative, and the Panel on Vegetation Classification). A basic background in and appreciation for ecology, biology, and/or environmental sciences is desired.

The Program Specialist will work with the Associate Director of Science Programs to organize and manage special ESA meetings, workshops, and training events that will bring scientists together on a wide range of topics. Additional duties may include taking notes, updating websites, taking photos and creating promotional materials, and tracking budget information. There may be opportunities to network with scientists in a variety of disciplines and contribute to workshop/grant reports and presentations.

For more information about the position and how to apply, please see:

https://na01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.esa.org%2Fcareer-development%2Fopportunities-at-esa%2F&data=02%7C01%7Cmadeline.hennessey%40uconn.edu%7C595ff63b3938437a356708d7fefae301%7C17f1a87e2a254eaab9df9d439034b080%7C0%7C0%7C637258225844446374&sdata=TIMEk11fl%2F7YbM2sRhwfRgIzRqW3KjM6IeqPA6Dg2rs%3D&reserved=0

Research Assistant in Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality – Auburn University

Research Assistant in Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Auburn University, School of Fisheries, Aquaculture, and Aquatic Sciences Auburn, AL, USA

Description:

One Research Assistant position is currently available to support several projects focused on the abiotic and biotic factors mediating freshwater harmful algal blooms in aquaculture ponds and drinking water and recreational reservoirs.  The incumbent will participate in field sampling, conduct lab analyses (i.e., phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration, algal pigments, nutrients), ensure proper maintenance of laboratory equipment, and maintain inventory and order supplies.

Qualifications:

Minimum qualifications include a BS (MS preferred) in biology, ecology, limnology, or related field.  Prior experience in field and laboratory aquatic ecology and water quality research is not required but preferred.

Salary:

Salary is dependent on qualifications and experience.  At a minimum, the salary will be $28,000 plus benefits.

Start date:

Exact start date is negotiable, but a preference would be given to candidates available no later than 1 September 2020.  The position is for one year and may be renewable pending available funds and performance.

How to Apply:

The position will remain open until filled.  For full consideration, please apply by 1 July 2020.  Applicants will be required to submit a statement of research interests and experiences and CV.  Additional information,  including contact information for three references and copies of transcripts, is also requested at the time of application.  For more details about the application process, please visit https://na01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.auemployment.com%2Fpostings%2F7171&data=02%7C01%7Cmadeline.hennessey%40uconn.edu%7C595ff63b3938437a356708d7fefae301%7C17f1a87e2a254eaab9df9d439034b080%7C0%7C0%7C637258225844446374&sdata=LvfCJ3Uai1FtglFnmRKtANZTjbVfu8meBfBBfrEdo2o%3D&reserved=0

For more information about the position or our lab, please contact Alan Wilson at wilson@auburn.edu or visit https://na01.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwilsonlab.com%2F&data=02%7C01%7Cmadeline.hennessey%40uconn.edu%7C595ff63b3938437a356708d7fefae301%7C17f1a87e2a254eaab9df9d439034b080%7C0%7C0%7C637258225844446374&sdata=gynHhA60vMEzcO9eHYF1kLZLlwzkYOv3kaAy6VTuH6Q%3D&reserved=0

Auburn University is an affirmative action equal opportunity employer.